What if we let philanthropies operate like businesses? Let them pay for talent, advertise aggressively to build market share—even build a stock market for charity. Maybe then capitalism could finally save the world. It’s time to change how society thinks about charity and social reform. A version of this article appeared September 15, 2012, on page C1 in the U.S. edition of The Wall Street Journal, with the headline: Why Can’t We Sell Charity Like We Sell Perfume?.